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Section 1 Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Though not biologically related, friends are as "related" as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is 1 a study published from the University of California and Yale University in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has 2 .
The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted 3 1932 unique subjects which 4 pairs of unrelated friends and unrelated strangers. The same people were used in both 5 .
While 1% may seem 6 , it is not so to a geneticist. As co-author of the study James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego says, "Most people do not even 7 their fourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who 8 our kin."
The team also developed a "friendship score" which can predict who will be your friend based on their genes.
The study 9 found that the genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for immunity. Why this similarity in olfactory genes is difficult to explain, for now. Perhaps, as the team suggests, it draws us to similar environments but there is more 11 it. There could be many mechanisms working in tandem that 12 us in choosing genetically similar friends 13 than "functional kinship" of being friends with 14 !
One of the remarkable findings of the study was that the similar genes seem to be evolving 15 than other genes. Studying this could help 16 why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social environment being a major 17 factor.
The findings do not simply corroborate people's 18 to befriend those of similar 19 backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to 20 that all subjects, friends and strangers were taken from the same population. The team also controlled the data to check ancestry of subjects.阅读2 J* p0 Y9 |7 S; W+ l
King Juan Carlos of Spain once insisted kings don’t abdicate, they die in their sleep. But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republican left in the recent Eurp-dections have forced him to eat his words and stand down. So, dies the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days? Does that mean the uniting is on the wall for all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic lifestyles?//The Spanish case previous arguments bochfor and against monarchy when public opiniod is particularly. Polarized, as it was following the end of the France regime, monarchs can rise above “mue” politics and “embady” a spirit of national unity.//It is this apparent transcendence of politics that explains monarchs continuing popularity as heads of states. And so, the Middle East expected, Europe is the most minanch-infested region is the world , with 10 kingdoms not counting Vatican city and Andorra. But unlike their absolutist counterparts in the Gulf and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to aoocd the difficult search for a non-controversial but respect public figure.
Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside, symbolic of national unity as they claim to be, their very history—and sometimes the way they behave today-embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities. At a time when Thomes Piketty and other ecumenists are warning of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states. The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic ways. Prince and princess have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or helicopters). Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image.
While Europe’s monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to strive for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example.
It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-healed) granny style. The danger will come with Charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty hierarchies view of the world. He has failed to understand that monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service—as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. Charles ought to know that as English history shows, it is kings of republicans, who are the monarchy’s worst enemies.
21、according to the fiirst two paragraphs, king Juan Carl of span
[A] used to enjoy high public support
[B] was unpopular among European royals
[C] ended his regin in embarrassment
[D] easted his relationship with his rivals
22、monarchs are kept as head of state in Eoropean mostly
[A] owing to their undoubted and respectable status
[B] to achieve ablame between tradition and reality
[C] to give voters more public figures to look up to
[D] due to their overlasting politiical embodiment
Just how much does the Constitution protect your digital data? The Supreme Cpurt will now consider whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest.
California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling, particularly one that upsets the old assumptions that authorities may search through the possessions of suspects at the time of their arrest. It is hard, the state argues, for judges to assess the implications of new and rapidly changing technologies.
The court would be recklessly modest if it followed California’s advice. Enough of the implications are discernable, even obvious, so that the justice can and should provide updated guidelines to police, lawyers and defendants.
They should start by discarding California’s lame argument that exploring the contents of a smartphone- a vast storehouse of digital information is similar to say, going through a suspect’s purse .The court has ruled that police don't violate the Fourth Amendment when they go through the wallet or porcketbook, of an arrestee without a warrant. But exploring one’s smartphone is more like entering his or her home. A smartphone may contain an arrestee’s reading history ,financial history, medical history and comprehensive records of recent correspondence. The development of “cloud computing.” meanwhile, has made that exploration so much the easier.
But the justices should not swallow California’s argument whole. New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution’s protections. Orin Kerr, a law professor, compares the explosion and accessibility of digital information in the 21st century with the establishment of automobile use as a digital necessity of life in the 20th: The justices had to specify novel rules for the new personal domain of the passenger car then; they must sort out how the Fourth Amendment applies to digital information now.
26. The Supreme court, will work out whether, during an arrest, it is legitimate to
[A] search for suspects’ mobile phones without a warrant.
[B] check suspects’ phone contents without being authorized.
[C] prevent suspects from deleting their phone contents.
[D] prohibit suspects from using their mobile phones.
27. The author’s attitude toward California’s argument is one of
28. The author believes that exploring one’s phone content is comparable to
[A] getting into one’s residence.
[B] handing one’s historical records.
[C] scanning one’s correspondences.
[D] going through one’s wallet.
29. In Paragraph 5 and 6, the author shows his concern that
[A] principles are hard to be clearly expressed.
[B] the court is giving police less room for action.
[C] phones are used to store sensitive information.
[D] citizens’ privacy is not effective protected.
30.Orin Kerr’s comparison is quoted to indicate that
(A)the Constitution should be implemented flexibly.
(B)New technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution.
(C)California’s argument violates principles of the Constitution.
(D)Principles of the Constitution should never be altered.
The journal Science is adding an extra round of statistical checks to its peer-review process, editor-in-chief Marcia McNutt announced today. The policy follows similar efforts from other journals, after widespread concern that basic mistakes in data analysis are contributing to the irreproducibility of many published research findings.
“Readers must have confidence in the conclusions published in our journal,” writes McNutt in an editorial. Working with the American Statistical Association, the journal has appointed seven experts to a statistics board of reviewing editors (SBoRE). Manuscript will be flagged up for additional scrutiny by the journal’s internal editors, or by its existing Board of Reviewing Editors or by outside peer reviewers. The SBoRE panel will then find external statisticians to review these manuscripts.
Asked whether any particular papers had impelled the change, McNutt said: “The creation of the ‘statistics board’ was motivated by concerns broadly with the application of statistics and data analysis in scientific research and is part of Science’s overall drive to increase reproducibility in the research we publish.”
Giovanni Parmigiani, a biostatistician at the Harvard School of Public Health, a member of the SBoRE group, says he expects the board to “play primarily an advisory role.” He agreed to join because he “found the foresight behind the establishment of the SBoRE to be novel, unique and likely to have a lasting impact. This impact will not only be through the publications in Science itself, but hopefully through a larger group of publishing places that may want to model their approach after Science.”
31、It can be learned from Paragraph I that
[A] Science intends to simplify its peer-review process.
[B]journals are strengthening their statistical checks.
[C]few journals are blamed for mistakes in data analysis.
[D]lack of data analysis is common in research projects.
32、The phrase “flagged up ”(Para.2)is the closest in meaning to
33、Giovanni Parmigiani believes that the establishment of the SBoRE may
[A]pose a threat to all its peers
[B]meet with strong opposition
[C]increase Science’s circulation.
[D]set an example for other journals
34、David Vaux holds that what Science is doing now
A. adds to researchers’ worklosd.
B. diminishes the role of reviewers.
C. has room for further improvement.
D. is to fail in the foreseeable future.
35. Which of the following is the best title of the text?
A. Science Joins Push to Screen Statistics in Papers
B. Professional Statisticians Deserve More Respect
C. Data Analysis Finds Its Way onto Editors’ Desks
D. Statisticians Are Coming Back with Science
Two years ago, Rupert Murdoch’s daughter, Elisabeth, spoke of the “unsettling dearth of integrity across so many of our institutions”. Integrity had collapsed, she argued, because of a collective acceptance that the only “sorting mechanism” in society should be profit and the market. But “it’s us, human beings, we the people who create the society we want, not profit”.
Driving her point home, she continued: “It’s increasingly apparent that the absence of purpose, of a moral language within government, media or business could become one of the most dangerous goals for capitalism and freedom.” This same absence of moral purpose was wounding companies such as News International, she thought, making it more likely that it would lose its way as it had with widespread illegal telephone hacking.
As the hacking trial concludes—finding guilty one ex-editor of the News of the World, Andy Coulson, for conspiring to hack phones, and finding his predecessor, Rebekah Brooks, innocent of the same charge—the wider issue of dearth of integrity still stands. Journalists are known to have hacked the phones of up to 5,500 people. This is hacking on an industrial scale, as was acknowledged by Glenn Mulcaire, the man hired by the News of the World in 2001 to be the point person for phone hacking. Others await trial. This saga still unfolds.
In many respects, the dearth of moral purpose frames not only the fact of such widespread phone hacking but the terms on which the trial took place. One of the astonishing revelations was how little Rebekah Brooks knew of what went on in her newsroom, how little she thought to ask and the fact that she never inquired how the stories arrived. The core of her successful defence was that she knew nothing.
In today’s world, it has become normal that well-paid executives should not be accountable for what happens in the organisations that they run. Perhaps we should not be so surprised. For a generation, the collective doctrine has been that the sorting mechanism of society should be profit. The words that have mattered are efficiency, flexibility, shareholder value, business-friendly, wealth generation, sales, impact and, in newspapers, circulation. Words degraded to the margin have been justice, fairness, tolerance, proportionality and accountability.
The purpose of editing the News of the World was not to promote reader understanding, to be fair in what was written or to betray any common humanity. It was to ruin lives in the quest for circulation and impact. Ms Brooks may or may not have had suspicions about how her journalists got their stories, but she asked no questions, gave no instructions—nor received traceable, recorded answers.
46) This movement，driven by powerful and diverse motivations, built a nation out of a wilderness and, by its nature, shaped the character and destiny of an uncharted continent.
47)The United States is the product of two principal forces-the immigration of European people with their varied ideas, customs, and national characteristics and the impact of a new country which modified these traits.
48)But the force of geographic conditions peculiar to America, the interplay of the varied national groups upon one another, and the sheer difficulty of maintaining old-world ways in a raw, new continent caused significant changes.
49)The first shiploads of immigrants bound for the territory which is now the United States crossed the Atlantic more than a hundred years after the 15th- and -16th-century explorations of North American.
50)The virgin forest with its richness and variety of trees was a real treasure-house which extended from Maine all the way down to Georgia.大作文
write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following picture.In you,you should
1)desecribe the picture briefly,
2)interpret its intended meaning,and
3)give your comments.
You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET。（20 points）
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you are going to hold a club reading session. Write an email of about 100 words recommending a book to the club members.
You should state reasons for your recommendation.
You should write neatly on the ANWSER SHEET. Do not sign you own name at the end of the letter, use “Li Ming ” instead. Do not write the address .(10 points)